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Metro Ethernet Bandwidth

Running Gigabit Ethernet over Copper INTRODUCTION When network managers decide on a cabling system, they make a decision that is basic to the network infrastructure and long term in its horizon. With the ratification of 1000BASE-T in June 1999 (IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Standard for Gigabit Ethernet on Category 5 copper), […]

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TCP/IP offload Engine TOE

TCP/IP offload Engine TOE application

Introduction Ethernet has become the most popular networking protocol for local area networks (LANs). It is inexpensive and offers plugandplay implementation. As networking has grown in popularity, Ethernet network link speeds have also been increasing. The growth of Ethernet from 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s has surpassed the growth of […]

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10 Gigabit Ethernet Bandwidth Quotes & Whitepaper


Under the International Standards Organization’s Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, Ethernet is fundamentally a Layer 2 protocol. 10 Gigabit Ethernet uses the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) protocol, the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet frame format, and the minimum and maximum IEEE 802.3 frame size. Just as 1000BASE-X and 1000BASE-T […]

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10 Gigabit Ethernet Interconnection with Wide Area Networks

wanphy dwdm

By far, the most widely used networking technology in Wide Area Networks (WANs) is SONET/SDH. With the growth of Ethernet now into Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) there is a growing need to interconnect Ethernet LANs and MANs to these prevalent SONET networks. With the advent of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the […]

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Ethernet WAN Transport, SONET ATM & OC-3 – OC-192


Ethernet Transport and its Service Technology To understand why Ethernet is a viable transport for the WAN, it’s important to note the various technology that surrounds and supports Ethernet. Figure 1 shows Ethernet’s circle of technology. At the core, Ethernet is supported within fiber, copper, and even wireless media. In […]

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Degraded Signal Testing

Introduction Two different testing philosophies have evolved in our communications networks: a “perfection” approach, under which the Device Under Test (DUT) is subjected to signals produced by test equipment whose performance exceeds the DUT’s required specifications and a “worst-case” approach that subjects the DUT to signals that simulate those likely […]

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Ethernet: The Dominant Network Technology

Metro Ethernet Bandwidth

Ethernet technology is ubiquitous. More than 85 percent of all installed network connections were Ethernet by the end of 1997 according to IDC. This represents over 118 million interconnected PCs, workstations and servers. The remaining network connections are a combination of Token Ring, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer […]

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Optical Fiber and 10 Gigabit Ethernet

fiber optic cable

As 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) is introduced into networks the physical limitations and properties of optical fiber introduce new challenges for a network designer. Due to the increased data rate, fiber effects, such as dispersion (intermodal, chromatic or polarization), become a factor in the achievable distances of 10GbE links. This […]

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Gigabit Ethernet

csma/cd flowchart

Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) is becoming more and more popular. The accelerating growth of LAN traffic is pushing network administrators to look to higher-speed network technologies to solve the bandwidth crunch. These administrators—who typically have either Ethernet or FDDI backbones today—have several alternatives to choose from. Although each network faces different […]

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10 Gigabit Ethernet Technology Overview ( 10GbE )


Please note this paper may be partially outdated (Revision 2, Draft A • April 2002) From its origin more than 25 years ago, Ethernet has evolved to meet the increasing demands of packet-switched networks. Due to its proven low implementation cost, its known reliability, and relative simplicity of installation and […]

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XAUI interface

diagram of XAUI interface

XAUI, the 10 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface, is a technical innovation that dramatically improves and simplifies the routing of electrical interconnections. Developed by the IEEE 802.3ae 10 Gigabit Ethernet Task Force, XAUI delivers 10 Gb/s of data throughput using four differential signal pairs in each direction. Its compact nature and […]

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iSCI Layers

Introduction to iSCSI As Ethernet begins to enter into the Storage world a new protocol has been getting a lot of attention. The Internet Small Computer Systems Interface or iSCSI, is an end-to-end protocol for transporting storage I/O block data over an IP network. The protocol is used on servers […]

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The Ethernet Physical Layer as Used in Resilient Packet Ring Systems


Under the auspices of the IEEE 802.3 Working Group, Ethernet has developed into one of the most widely deployed networking technologies in the world. Ethernet’s unrelenting advances have allowed it to become the dominant technology for Enterprise networking. Data rates have increased from 10Mbps to Gigabit speeds. Links have gone […]

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Gigabit Ethernet ( GigE ) & 1000BASE-T

Gigabit Ethernet technology family diagram

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction The Case for a Copper Gigabit Ethernet Solution 1000BASE-T Overview Standards Development Process Interoperability How Does It Work? The Cabling Issue The Design Approach GigE bandwidth quotes GIGABIT ETHERNET OVER 4-PAIR 100 OHM CATEGORY 5 CABLING Introduction With the dramatic increases in desktop computing power driven […]

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